sábado, 19 de janeiro de 2013

TSE passará a ter estatística sobre raça e cor de candidatos nas eleições de 2014

Agência Brasil

A dificuldade para levantar o dado é que a autodeclaração de raça/cor, já incluída pelo IBGE no Censo e na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio, não entra na ficha de registro das candidaturas
O Tribunal Superior Eleitoral não tem estatísticas sobre o número de negros na política brasileira, nem políticos eleitos nem candidatos. A dificuldade para levantar o dado é que a autodeclaração de raça/cor, já incluída pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) no Censo e na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio, não entra na ficha de registro das candidaturas.
Depois de questionamento da Agência Brasil sobre o levantamento e a falta de dados, o tribunal informou, por meio de sua assessoria de imprensa, que o grupo responsável pela avaliação das últimas eleições passou a considerar a inclusão do item raça/cor no processo eleitoral.
O TSE informou que depois de uma eleição inicia os preparativos para a próxima com uma série de avaliações das práticas que devem ser mantidas e as que podem ser aprimoradas. Segundo o tribunal, a sugestão de agregar ao sistema de registro de candidaturas a opção para o candidato declarar a sua cor foi encaminhada ao grupo de estatística, que está analisando a viabilidade e o formato da produção desse dado para as Eleições 2014.
A assessora política do Instituto de Estudos Socioeconômicos (Inesc), Eliana Graça, diz que a entidade tentou implantar a medida por meio de articulação no Congresso Nacional, mas não obteve sucesso.
“É uma batalha [nossa de] um bom tempo, tentando convencer os parlamentares de que isso tinha que entrar na minirreforma política de 2009, [na qual foram feitas] algumas proibições, se regulamentou alguma coisa das campanhas. Uma das coisas que nós queríamos naquela época era que constasse na lei a obrigatoriedade, na hora da inscrição do candidato, da autodeclaração de cor/raça”.
De acordo com ela, a negativa demostra o preconceito existente no parlamento brasileiro. Eliana disse que os parlamentares não aceitaram a sugestão “porque têm medo que aparece uma cota”, da mesma forma que tem a cota para mulheres.Segundo ela, os parlamentares foram taxativos: “não, esse negócio de botar na ficha, daqui a pouco vem uma cota”.Eliana acredita que isso “é o receio, o medo mesmo que o pessoal tem, de você mudar o perfil do parlamento”.
Para o coordenador do Laboratório de Análises Econômicas, Históricas, Sociais e Estatísticas das Relações Sociais (Laeser) do Instituto de Economia (IE) da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Marcelo Paixão, conhecer a atual situação dos negros na política é fundamental para aumentar a participação deles nas esferas decisórias do país.
“É necessário mapear não apenas quem são os eleitos, mas quem não foi eleito, quem está disputando, desde o partido nanico até o partido grandão”. Paixão acredita que seria necessário cruzar a cor das pessoas com a sua condição econômica, para saber de que forma isso tem peso na possibilidade de eleger-se. Quer dizer, a gente tem uma agenda pela frente, mas sem informação, estatística confiável, fica difícil. Por isso a gente acha que ajudaria se o TSE [informasse] a cor do candidato, como o IBGE já faz em toda pesquisa demográfica”.
Paixão é um dos organizadores do Relatório Anual das Desigualdades Raciais no Brasil, que fez um levantamento em 2007 sobre o número de negros no Congresso Nacional, com base no registro fotográfico.
A deputada federal Benedita da Silva reforça a necessidade de mapear a situação étnica em todas as esferas do país. Para ela, essa é uma forma de identificar as etnias no país. “É fundamental para nós”. Benedita defende que em todos os registros dos cidadãos deveriam constar a informação sobre a cor. “Eu até apresentei um projeto nessa direção, não só [no que diz respeito às] cotas nas universidades, mas que o quesito cor esteja em todo e qualquer registro que a pessoa tenha que fazer”.
A secretária de políticas de ações afirmativas da Secretaria de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial (Seppir), Ângela Nascimento, diz que é um pedido do órgão que todos os formulários usados pelo governo federal passem a incorporar informações sobre raça/cor e que para se estenda essa prática ao Legislativo e ao Judiciário.
Para Ângela, será fundamental que o Tribunal Superior Eleitoral incorpore os dados sobre raça/cor em todos os seus formulários, já que uma dificuldade que da Seppir encontra hoje no campo da pesquisa é saber o percentual de negros no poder político, no Legislativo, principalmente.
Ângela destaca que a participação de pretos e pardos nas candidaturas tem que vir da sociedade, no momento em que reconhece a importância dos negros para o país. Para ela, essa participação vai garantir a incorporação de ações afirmativas que vão contribuir para diminuir as desigualdades no país.

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